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Ruby 中$开头的全局变量、内部变量、隐藏变量介绍

2021/6/9 7:07:32   来源:

Ruby 中充满了一系列的隐藏变量,我们可以从这些预定义的全局变量中获取一些有意思的信息。

全局进程变量

$$ 表示当前运行的 ruby 进程。

复制代码 代码如下:
>> $$
=> 17170

我们可以从当前进程杀死它自己
复制代码 代码如下:

>> `kill -9 #{$$}`
[1]    17170 killed     irb

$? 表示最近一个子进程的状态
复制代码 代码如下:

>> `echo hello`
=> "hello\n"
>> $?
=> #<Process::Status: pid 18048 exit 0>
>> $?.success?
=> true

异常和错误

$1 表示引起异常的信息。比如在这里 raise "there's no peanut butter",它的值就是 there's no peanut butter。

复制代码 代码如下:

>> begin raise "this town ain't big enough for the both of us" rescue puts $! end
this town ain't big enough for the both of us
=> nil

$@ 可以给出完整的引起错误的栈调用信息,它是一个数组。
复制代码 代码如下:

>> begin raise 'no soup in kitchen' rescue $@.each { |trace| puts trace } end
(irb):13:in `irb_binding'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/workspace.rb:80:in `eval'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/workspace.rb:80:in `evaluate'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/context.rb:254:in `evaluate'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:159:in `block (2 levels) in eval_input'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:273:in `signal_status'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:156:in `block in eval_input'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/ruby-lex.rb:243:in `block (2 levels) in each_top_level_statement'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/ruby-lex.rb:229:in `loop'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/ruby-lex.rb:229:in `block in each_top_level_statement'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/ruby-lex.rb:228:in `catch'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/ruby-lex.rb:228:in `each_top_level_statement'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:155:in `eval_input'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:70:in `block in start'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:69:in `catch'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:69:in `start'
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/bin/>>'
=> ["(>>'"]


字符串和分隔符

$; 表示 String.split 里的分隔符,默认是空格。

复制代码 代码如下:

>> "One Spaceship, Two Tiny Tanks, Three Misplaced Socks".split
=> ["One Spaceship", " Two Tiny Tanks", " Three Misplaced Socks"]
>> $; = ","
=> ","
>> "One Spaceship, Two Tiny Tanks, Three Misplaced Socks".split
=> ["One Spaceship", " Two Tiny Tanks", " Three Misplaced Socks"]
$, 用在 Array.join 和 Kernel.print 里,默认是 nil。

>> ['one', 'two', 'three', 'green'].join
=> "onetwothreegreen"
>> $, = "-"
=> "-"
>> ['one', 'two', 'three', 'green'].join
=> "one-two-three-green"


$/ 表述读取输入的行分隔符。它被用在 Kernel.gets 里。它通常表示新行,但可以被修改。这个很难展示,因为 irb 依赖 \n 作为读取分隔符,如果把 $/ 设置成 nil,gets 就会读取整个文件。

$\ 正好相反,它是作为输出的行分隔符。

复制代码 代码如下:

>> $\ = "mooooooo "
=> "mooooooo "
>> puts a
NameError-: -undefined local variable or method `a' for main:Object-
mooooooo        from (irb):25
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/bin/>>'-
mooooooo >> a

文件

假设有个叫letter.text的文件:

复制代码 代码如下:

Dear Caroline,
I think we need some honey for tea.
I also think that I may have misplaced my red tie, have you seen it?

-Nick


$. 表示文件当前被读取的行号。
复制代码 代码如下:

>> open('letter.txt').each { |line| puts "#{$.}: #{line}" }
1: Dear Caroline,
2: I think we need some honey for tea.
3: I also think that I may have misplaced my red tie, have you seen it?
4:
5: -Nick
=> #<File:letter.txt>

$_ 表示最后读取的行。
复制代码 代码如下:

>> open('letter.txt').each { |line| puts $_.nil? }
true
true
true
true
true
=> #<File:letter.txt>

匹配和正则表达式

$~ 表示最近一次正则匹配到的信息,如果有的话它就返回 MatchData 的示例,否则就是 nil。

复制代码 代码如下:

>> "the robots are coming, the robots are coming, the robots are coming" =~ /ro/
=> 4
>> $~
=> #<MatchData "ro">
>> $~.to_s
=> "ro"
>> "the robots are coming, the robots are coming, the robots are coming" =~ /cats/
=> nil
>> $~

$& 跟 $~ 非常相似,它返回最近一次匹配到的字符串。
复制代码 代码如下:

>> "the robots are coming, the robots are coming, the robots are coming" =~ /ro/
=> 4
>> $&

$' 表示匹配不分后面的字符串。
复制代码 代码如下:

>> "There were once ten tin robots standing in a row." =~ /robot/
=> 24
>> $'
=> "s standing in a row."
=> "ro"
=> nil

其他

$> 表示ruby 默认的输出对象,用在 Kernel.print 里。

复制代码 代码如下:

>> $> =  $> = $stderr
=> #<IO:<STDERR>>
>> puts 'no no no'
no no no
=> nil
>> $> = $stdin
/home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:168:in `write': not opened for writing (IOError)
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:168:in `print'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:168:in `block (2 levels) in eval_input'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:273:in `signal_status'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:156:in `block in eval_input'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/ruby-lex.rb:243:in `block (2 levels) in each_top_level_statement'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/ruby-lex.rb:229:in `loop'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/ruby-lex.rb:229:in `block in each_top_level_statement'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/ruby-lex.rb:228:in `catch'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb/ruby-lex.rb:228:in `each_top_level_statement'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:155:in `eval_input'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:70:in `block in start'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:69:in `catch'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/lib/ruby/1.9.1/irb.rb:69:in `start'
        from /home/meck/.rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p194/bin/irb:12:in `<main>'

$* 可能是最常用全局变量,它表示包含传给 ruby 文件的所有变量的数组,假设有个叫 argument_echoer.rb 文件:
复制代码 代码如下:

$*.each { |arg| puts arg }

运行它:
复制代码 代码如下:

$ ruby argument_echoer.rb Who What When Where and Why
Who
What
When
Where
and
Why

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